Transducer play a vital role in the field of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process needs to be converted in one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to another.
This is a device which converts one type of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electrical energy is transformed into an electrical energy.
Types of transducer:
There are two types of transducers, they may be: Active transducers and Passive transducers
Active transducers: torque sensor is actually a device which converts the given non-electrical power into electrical energy by itself. Thermocouple, Photovoltaic cell and more are the best samples of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is a device which converts the given non-electrical power into electrical energy by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer are the examples for that Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect can be found in some materials (including quartz) that have an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is applied towards the structure, it produces an electric powered charge and, when an electric powered field is applied, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” is derived from the Greek word for pressure.
A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or the other way around. Basically any kind of piezo mechanism could be called compression load cell. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to operate voltage changes and thus are often used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are used in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The main benefit of a piezo speaker more than a magnetically driven speaker lies in the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness in the piezo ceramic plates that are used to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging are also based upon piezoelectrics. In this case, the ultrasonic transducers are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly boosts the amplitude while reducing the input power concurrently, i.e. the program is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer:
In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are generally known as a piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is usually used to generate forces or to position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are often operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors:
Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors which can be very widely used for pressure sensing applications. These are sometimes used combined with piezo actuators to offer position feedback or force feedback, for example on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive means that the resistance changes with the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors usually do not generate a charge (energy) and they cannot convert mechanical in hkjrzk energy and the other way round. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a wonderful selection for entry-level systems. Other sensors can be purchased when innovative performance is necessary.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators:
If operated beneath the right conditions, the most recent generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators could work for 10’s of billions of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping:
Because of their fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a great choice for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor is required to provide the controller the proper information about how to counteract the mechanical vibration by offering the right amplitude and phase output towards the piezo actuator. The sensor could even be load sensor, configured to answer strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping:
Any type of rapid actuation will cause vibrations in a work piece. According to Newton’s laws, this means, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the greater reactive forces it can cause. In the event these forces are unwanted, an additional piezo mechanical system having a counter mass may be integrated and driven with a signal from the opposite phase. With some fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel one another out and the work piece are now able to move quickly but without exerting any force on the surrounding structures. This trick is frequently found in fast piezo steering mirrors for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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